Gibson, C. M., Cannon, C. P., Piana, R. N., Breall, J. A., Sharaf, B., Flatley, M., Alexander, B., Diver, D. J., McCabe, C. H., Flaker, G. C., et al., Angiographic predictors of reocclusion after thrombolysis: results from the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 4 trial Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1995;25(3):582-9.

OBJECTIVES: This study attempted to determine which lesion characteristics are associated with reocclusion by 18 to 36 h.

BACKGROUND: Reocclusion of the infarct-related artery after successful reperfusion is associated with significant morbidity and up to a threefold increase in mortality.

METHODS: Two hundred seventy-eight patients with acute myocardial infarction were randomized to receive either anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex (APSAC) or recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) or their combination. Culprit arteries were assessed for Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade, lesion ulceration, thrombus, collateral circulation and eccentricity. Minimal lumen diameter, percent diameter stenosis and lesion irregularity (power) were calculated using quantitative angiography.

RESULTS: Reocclusion was observed more frequently in arteries with TIMI 2 versus TIMI 3 flow (10.4% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.003), in ulcerated lesions (10.7% vs. 3.0%, p = 0.009) and in the presence of collateral vessels (18.2% vs. 5.6%, p = 0.03). Similar trends were observed for eccentric (7.3% vs. 2.3%, p = 0.06) and thrombotic (8.4% vs. 3.3%, p = 0.06) lesions. Reocclusion was associated with more severe mean percent stenosis (77.9% vs. 73.9%, p = 0.04). Lesion length, reference segment diameter and Fourier measures of lesion irregularity were not associated with reocclusion.

CONCLUSIONS: Several simply assessed angiographic variables, such as the presence of TIMI grade 2 flow, ulceration, collateral vessels and greater percent diameter stenosis at 90 min after thrombolytic therapy, are associated with significantly higher rates of infarct-related artery reocclusion by 18 to 36 h and may aid in identifying the subset of patients who are at significantly higher risk of early reocclusion and who potentially warrant further early pharmacologic or mechanical intervention.

Trial: TIMI 4