Gersh, B. J., Chesebro, J. H., Braunwald, E., Lambrew, C., Passamani, E., Solomon, R. E., Ross, A. M., Ross, R., Terrin, M. L., Knatterud, G. L. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery after thrombolytic therapy in the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Trial, Phase II (TIMI II) Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1995;25(2):395-402.

OBJECTIVES: We examined the results of coronary artery bypass graft surgery after thrombolytic therapy in the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction trial, Phase II (TIMI II) with particular emphasis on patient characteristics, the impact of antecedent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and morbidity and mortality in certain subgroups.

BACKGROUND: Coronary bypass surgery is frequently used after thrombolytic therapy, but there is relatively little information with regard to early and late outcomes.

METHODS: We analyzed 3,339 patients enrolled in the TIMI II trial. Bypass surgery was performed in 390 patients (11.7%): 54 (14%) within 24 h after entry into the trial or within 24 h of coronary angioplasty and 336 (86%) between 24 h and 42 days after entry.

RESULTS: Perioperative mortality rates were, respectively, 16.7% and 3.9% (p < 0.001); perioperative myocardial infarction rates were 5.6% and 6.2%, respectively; and major hemorrhagic events occurred in 74% and 50.9%, respectively (p = 0.002). On multivariate analysis, the only independent predictor of perioperative mortality was bypass surgery within 24 h after entry or after coronary angioplasty. Among patients undergoing bypass surgery within 24 h of entry or after coronary angioplasty, the prevalence of multivessel disease (59.1% vs. 77.8%) and use of the internal thoracic artery (18.5% vs. 62.5%) were lower than in the remaining surgical patients. Among the 322 perioperative survivors, the 1-year mortality rate after discharge was only 2.2% and 1.9%, respectively, in the two groups. Only one patient had a documented recurrent myocardial infarction during the first year.

CONCLUSIONS: The increased mortality rate with bypass surgery after thrombolytic therapy, particularly in patients undergoing operation within 24 h of coronary angioplasty or during the involving phase of infarction, must be balanced against the excellent 1-year prognosis and perioperative survivors, who are in general a group at higher risk of death or recurrent infarction. These data provide a basis for comparison for future studies.

Trial: TIMI 2B