Kirtane, A. J., Bui, A., Murphy, S. A., Karmpaliotis, D., Kosmidou, I., Boundy, K., Rahman, A., Pinto, D. S., Aroesty, J. M., Giugliano, R. P., Cannon, C. P., Antman, E. M., Gibson, C. M. Association of epicardial and tissue-level reperfusion with left ventricular end-diastolic pressures in ST-elevation myocardial infarction J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2004;17(3):177-84.

Unfavorable hemodynamics among patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes and may be linked to a failure to achieve complete reperfusion. We hypothesized that impaired epicardial and tissue-level perfusion after fibrinolytic therapy would be associated with adverse hemodynamics. The relationship between left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), baseline clinical characteristics, and angiographic findings were examined in 666 patients with STEMI treated with fibrinolytic therapy from the TIMI 14, INTEGRITI (TIMI 20), ENTIRE (TIMI 23), and FASTER (TIMI 24) trials. LVEDP was analyzed as a dichotomous variable with an elevated LVEDP defined as LVEDP >18 mmHg (median value). Higher post-fibrinolytic LVEDP was associated with age > or = 65, female gender, Killip Class II-IV on presentation, and LAD culprit location. Elevated LVEDP was associated with both a closed infarct-related artery (58.8% of TIMI Flow Grade (TFG) 0/1 with elevated LVEDP vs. 46.6% of TFG 2/3, p = 0.03) and impaired myocardial perfusion (55.7% of TIMI Myocardial Perfusion Grade (TMPG) 0/1 with elevated LVEDP vs. 43.8% of TMPG 2/3, p = 0.02). In a multivariate analysis, impaired myocardial perfusion (OR 1.7, p = 0.02), abnormal Killip Class (OR 4.8, p = 0.001), age > or = 65 (OR 1.6, p = 0.04), and female gender (OR 1.9, p = 0.01) were independently associated with elevated LVEDP. Elevated LVEDP was independently associated with a greater incidence of in-hospital (OR 11.8, p = 0.02) and 30-day congestive heart failure (OR 4.4, p = 0.02). In STEMI, angiographic indices of incomplete reperfusion are associated with an elevated LVEDP, and elevated LVEDP is associated with adverse clinical outcomes.