Ruff, C. T., Braunwald, E. Will warfarin ever be replaced? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2010;15(3):210-9.

Arterial and venous thromboembolism account for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Warfarin, and other vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), have been the only class of oral anticoagulants currently in clinical use and have been so for over 50 years. Although warfarin is effective in preventing thromboembolism, its use is limited by its narrow therapeutic index that necessitates frequent monitoring and dose adjustments resulting in considerable inconvenience to patients and clinicians. There are now several orally administered anticoagulants in late stages of clinical development that may offer effective, safer, and more convenient anticoagulation. This review summarizes and compares data on novel anticoagulants in the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism, acute coronary syndromes, and the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation.