Abstract

Gibson, C. M., Chakrabarti, A. K., Mega, J., Bode, C., Bassand, J. P., Verheugt, F. W., Bhatt, D. L., Goto, S., Cohen, M., Mohanavelu, S., Burton, P., Stone, G., Braunwald, E., Atlas-Acs Timi Investigators Reduction of stent thrombosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes treated with rivaroxaban in ATLAS-ACS 2 TIMI 51 J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62(4):286-90.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if rivaroxaban is associated with a reduction in stent thrombosis among patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in the ATLAS-ACS 2 TIMI 51 (Anti-Xa Therapy to Lower Cardiovascular Events in Addition to Standard Therapy in Subjects With Acute Coronary Syndrome-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 51) trial.

BACKGROUND: Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) has been the mainstay of efforts to prevent stent thrombosis. Because thrombin is a potent stimulant of platelet activation, we hypothesized that inhibition of thrombin generation via factor Xa inhibition may further reduce the risk of stent thrombosis.

METHODS: The ATLAS-ACS 2 TIMI 51 study was a placebo-controlled trial that randomly assigned 15,526 patients with recent ACS to receive twice-daily doses of either 2.5 mg or 5 mg of rivaroxaban or placebo for a mean of 13 months and up to 31 months.

RESULTS: Among patients who had a stent placed before or at the time of the index event, rivaroxaban significantly reduced independently adjudicated Academic Research Consortium definite and probable stent thrombosis in the pooled (1.9% vs. 1.5%; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.65; p = 0.017) and the 2.5 mg twice-daily (1.9% vs. 1.5%; HR: 0.61; p = 0.023) treatment groups when compared with placebo, with a trend toward a reduction in the 5 mg twice-daily treatment group (1.9% vs. 1.5%; HR: 0.70; p = 0.089). Among patients who received both aspirin and a thienopyridine (stratum 2), the benefit of rivaroxaban emerged during the period of active treatment with DAPT (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.50 to 0.92, combined rivaroxaban group vs. placebo). Among stented patients who were treated with dual antiplatelet therapy, there was a mortality reduction among those treated with twice-daily rivaroxaban 2.5 mg (HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.89; p = 0.014).

CONCLUSIONS: Among stented patients with ACS treated with DAPT, the administration of twice-daily rivaroxaban 2.5 mg was associated with a reduction in stent thrombosis and mortality. (An Efficacy and Safety Study for Rivaroxaban in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome; NCT00809965).

Trial: ATLAS ACS2-TIMI 51