Giugliano, R. P., Giraldez, R. R., Morrow, D. A., Antman, E. M., Gibson, C. M., Mohanavelu, S., Murphy, S. A., McCabe, C. H., Braunwald, E. Relations between bleeding and outcomes in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the ExTRACT-TIMI 25 trial Eur Heart J. 2010;31(17):2103-10.

AIMS: To evaluate the association of bleeding with mortality in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

METHODS: We studied 20 323 patients with STEMI receiving fibrinolytic therapy and an antithrombin in ExTRACT-TIMI 25. Relationships between in-hospital bleeding, patient characteristics, treatments, and in-hospital cardiovascular complications with mortality were evaluated using Cox models. Likelihood ratios estimated each variable's model contribution. High 30-day mortality after major bleeding (n = 309, 37.6% mortality) was driven by the poor prognosis of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH; n = 143, 65.4% mortality, model contribution 7.8%). The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for 30-day death for any major bleeding and for ICH were 2.9 [2.4-3.6] and 10.3 [8.2-12.8], respectively. Neither non-ICH major nor minor bleeding was associated with 30-day death after adjustment. Cardiogenic shock (HR 13.5, 61% contribution) and age (HR 1.6/decade, 17% contribution) were most strongly correlated with 30-day death. Among 30-day survivors, age (HR 1.6/decade, contribution 43%) and heart rate (HR 1.2 per 10 b.p.m., contribution 18%) were most strongly associated with mortality between Days 31 and 365.

CONCLUSION: Cardiogenic shock, age, and ICH were important independent correlates of 30-day and 1-year mortality in STEMI patients receiving fibrinolytic therapy. In-hospital non-ICH major and minor bleeding were not independently associated with increased mortality at 30 days or 1 year.