Giraldez, R. R., Wiviott, S. D., Nicolau, J. C., Mohanavelu, S., Morrow, D. A., Antman, E. M., Giugliano, R. P. Streptokinase and enoxaparin as an alternative to fibrin-specific lytic-based regimens: an ExTRACT-TIMI 25 analysis Drugs. 2009;69(11):1433-43.

BACKGROUND: Enoxaparin was superior to unfractionated heparin (UFH), regardless of fibrinolytic agent in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients receiving fibrinolytic therapy in ExTRACT-TIMI 25 (Enoxaparin and Thrombolysis Reperfusion for Acute Myocardial Infarction Treatment - Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 25) trial. OBJECTIVE: This post hoc analysis compared outcomes with streptokinase plus enoxaparin to the standard regimen of fibrin-specific lytic (FSL) plus UFH and to the newer combination of FSL plus enoxaparin.

METHODS: In ExTRACT-TIMI 25, STEMI patients received either streptokinase or a FSL (alteplase, reteplase or tenecteplase) at the physician's discretion and were randomized to enoxaparin or UFH, stratified by fibrinolytic type. Thirty-day outcomes were adjusted for baseline characteristics, region, in-hospital percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and a propensity score for the choice of lytic.

RESULTS: The primary trial endpoint of 30-day death/myocardial infarction (MI) occurred in fewer patients in the streptokinase-enoxaparin cohort (n = 2083) compared with FSL-UFH (n = 8141) [10.2% vs 12.0%, adjusted odds ratio [OR(adj)] 0.76; 95% CI 0.62, 0.93; p = 0.008]. Major bleeding was significantly increased with streptokinase-enoxaparin compared with FSL-UFH (OR(adj) 2.74; 95% CI 1.81; 4.14; p < 0.001) but intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) was similar (OR(adj) 0.90; 95% CI 0.40, 2.01; p = 0.79). Net clinical outcomes, defined as either death/MI/major bleeding or as death/MI/ICH tended to favour streptokinase-enoxaparin compared with FSL-UFH (OR(adj) 0.88; 95% CI 0.73, 1.06; p = 0.17; and OR(adj) 0.77; 95% CI 0.63, 0.93; p = 0.008, respectively). Patients receiving FSL-enoxaparin (n = 8142) and streptokinase-enoxaparin therapies experienced similar adjusted rates of the primary endpoint (OR(adj) 1.08; 95% CI 0.87, 1.32; p = 0.49) and net clinical outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that fibrinolytic therapy with the combination of streptokinase and the potent anticoagulant agent enoxaparin resulted in similar adjusted outcomes compared with more costly regimens utilizing a FSL.