Grandin, E. W., Jarolim, P., Murphy, S. A., Ritterova, L., Cannon, C. P., Braunwald, E., Morrow, D. A. Galectin-3 and the development of heart failure after acute coronary syndrome: pilot experience from PROVE IT-TIMI 22 Clinical chemistry. 2012;58(1):267-73.

BACKGROUND: Galectin-3 is a beta-galactoside-binding lectin that has been implicated in cardiac fibrosis and remodeling, is increased in models of failure-prone hearts, and has prognostic value in patients with heart failure (HF). The relationship between galectin-3 and the development of HF after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unknown.

METHODS: In a nested case-control study among patients with ACS in PROVE IT-TIMI 22, we identified 100 cases with a hospitalization for new or worsening HF. Controls were matched (1:1) for age, sex, ACS type, and randomized treatment. Serum galectin-3 was measured at baseline (within 7 days post-ACS). RESULTS: Patients who developed HF had higher baseline galectin-3 [median 16.7 mug/L (25th, 75th percentile 14.0, 20.6) vs 14.6 mug/L (12.0, 17.6), P=0.004]. Patients with baseline galectin-3 above the median had an odds ratio of 2.1 (95% CI 1.2-3.6) for developing HF, P=0.010. Galectin-3 showed a graded relationship with risk of HF. Cases were more likely to have hypertension, diabetes, prior MI, and prior HF; after adjustment for these factors, this graded relationship with galectin-3 quartile and HF remained significant [adjusted OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.9), P=0.020]. When BNP was added to the model, the relationship between galectin-3 and HF was attenuated [adjusted OR 1.3 (95% CI: 0.96-1.9), P=0.08].

CONCLUSIONS: The finding that galectin-3 is associated with the risk of developing HF following ACS adds to emerging evidence supporting galectin-3 as a biomarker of adverse remodeling contributing to HF as well as a potential therapeutic target.