Abstract

Rogers, W. J., Baim, D. S., Gore, J. M., Brown, B. G., Roberts, R., Williams, D. O., Chesebro, J. H., Babb, J. D., Sheehan, F. H., Wackers, F. J., et al., Comparison of immediate invasive, delayed invasive, and conservative strategies after tissue-type plasminogen activator. Results of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Phase II-A trial Circulation. 1990;81(5):1457-76.

To assess the value and timing of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) after thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 586 patients in the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Study Phase II-A were randomized among three treatment strategies, one using immediate coronary arteriography followed by PTCA if appropriate (immediate invasive strategy group, n = 195), a second that deferred angiography and PTCA for 18-48 hours (delayed invasive strategy group, n = 194), and a third, more conservative, approach in which PTCA was used only if ischemia occurred spontaneously or at the time of predischarge exercise testing (conservative strategy group, n = 197). Predischarge contrast left ventricular ejection fraction, the primary study end point, was similar among the patients in all three treatment groups and averaged 49.3%. The finding of a patent infarct-related artery at the time of predischarge arteriography was equally common among the patients in the three groups (mean, 83.7%); however, the mean residual infarct artery stenosis was greater in the patients in the conservative strategy group (67.2%) as compared with the patients in the immediate invasive (50.6%) and the delayed invasive strategy groups (47.8%) (p less than 0.001). Immediate invasive strategy led to a higher rate of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) after PTCA (7.7%) than did delayed invasive and conservative strategies (2.1% and 2.5%, respectively; p less than 0.01). Furthermore, among patients not undergoing CABG during the first 21 days, blood transfusion of more than 1 unit was used in 13.8% of the patients in the immediate invasive strategy group, 3.1% of the patients in the delayed invasive strategy group, and 2.0% of the patients in the conservative strategy group (p less than 0.001). At 1-year follow-up, the three treatment groups had similar cumulative rates of mortality (8.7%, pooled over all groups), fatal and nonfatal reinfarction (8.5%), combined death and reinfarction (14.5%), and CABG (17.2%), although the cumulative performance rate of PTCA remained higher in the invasive groups (immediate invasive strategy group, 75.8%; delayed invasive strategy group, 64.3%; and conservative strategy group, 23.9%; p less than 0.001). Thus, because conservative strategy achieves equally good short- and long-term outcome with less morbidity and a lower use of PTCA, it seems to be the preferred initial management strategy.

Trial: TIMI 2A