Shah, R. V., Holmes, D., Anderson, M., Wang, T. Y., Kontos, M. C., Wiviott, S. D., Scirica, B. M. Risk of heart failure complication during hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction in a contemporary population: insights from the National Cardiovascular Data ACTION Registry Circ Heart Fail. 2012;5(6):693-702.

BACKGROUND: Patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated by heart failure (HF) are subject to higher mortality during the index hospitalization. Early risk prediction and intervention may help prevent HF-related morbidity and mortality.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 77 675 ST-elevation MI and 110 128 non-ST-elevation patients with MI without cardiogenic shock or HF at presentation treated at 609 hospitals in Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network Registry (ACTION) Registry-Get With The Guidelines between January 1, 2007, and March 31, 2011. Logistic regression identified patient characteristics associated with development of in-hospital HF. Overall, 3.8% of patients with MI developed in-hospital HF, which was associated with higher mortality in both ST-elevation MI and non-ST elevation MI. In multivariable logistic regression, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤30%, prior HF, diabetes mellitus, female sex, ST-elevation MI, and hypertension (all P<0.005) were independently associated with in-hospital HF. Patients who developed HF during non-ST-elevation MI were more likely to be medically managed without catheterization (30% versus 13% with HF, P<0.0001) or had longer delays to surgical or percutaneous revascularization. Patients with ST-elevation MI and HF were less likely to receive primary percutaneous coronary revascularization (84% versus 79% with HF, P<0.0001), and more likely to receive thrombolytic therapy (14% versus 11%; P=0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with MI who develop HF during hospitalization have a higher risk clinical profile and greater mortality, but may be less likely to receive revascularization in a timely fashion. Targeting these highest risk patients may improve outcome post-MI.