Cannon, C. P. The next step in cardiovascular protection Atheroscler Suppl. 2003;4(5):9-Mar.

While aggressive interventional therapy and anti-thrombotic therapy have revolutionized the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), defined as acute myocardial infarction (MI) or unstable angina (UA), long-term event rates remain high. Elevated lipids, inflammation and infection have each been implicated as additional mechanisms contributing to instability of vulnerable plaques. The new frontier in ACS management has focussed on treatment of these components of vascular disease. Preliminary trials have shown that early treatment with statins after ACS reduces coronary events but additional studies are needed to confirm this benefit. Furthermore, it is not clear what degree of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering is needed to stabilize the ACS patient. Chlamydia pneumoniae has been implicated in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) but the results of preliminary trials investigating anti-chlamydial antibiotics have been inconsistent. Therefore, the Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy (PROVE-IT TIMI 22) trial has been designed specifically to determine whether standard LDL-C reduction (with pravastatin 40 mg) provides a similar clinical benefit to more aggressive LDL-C reduction (with atorvastatin 80 mg). In 4162 ACS patients over a 2-year period, this trial will also evaluate the long-term effect of the quinolone antibiotic, gatifloxacin, in reducing cardiovascular events.