Ruff, C. T., Wiviott, S. D., Morrow, D. A., Mohanavelu, S., Murphy, S. A., Antman, E. M., Braunwald, E. TIMI risk index and the benefit of enoxaparin in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction American Journal of Medicine. 2007;120(11):993-8.

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the cause of death, risk of nonfatal complications, and relative outcomes with an enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin strategy in ST-elevation myocardial infarction stratified using the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Risk Index (TRI).

METHODS: We evaluated 30-day outcomes in 19,941 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with fibrinolysis and unfractionated heparin or enoxaparin. Patients were categorized on the basis of prespecified ranges of the TRI [heart rate x (age/10)2/systolic blood pressure]. RESULTS: There was a strongly graded increase in 30-day mortality with increasing TRI (1.2%-20.7%, P<.0001). The proportion of deaths due to mechanical causes (congestive heart failure, shock, and myocardial rupture) increased progressively with the TRI. There also was a significant positively graded association between the TRI and nonfatal heart failure or shock (0.4%-4.4%, P<.0001). In contrast, death resulting from recurrent ischemic events predominated in the lowest TRI group. The relative reduction in death/myocardial infarction with the enoxaparin strategy appeared inversely graded with the TRI. There was a 38% reduction in the lowest risk group (relative risk 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.45-0.86) and a decrease in the relative benefit of enoxaparin with increasing risk index.

CONCLUSIONS: The TRI was a strong predictor of all-cause mortality in a broad population, with a positive association with the risk of death due to mechanical complications and an inverse association with deaths due to recurrent ischemia. The enoxaparin strategy was superior to unfractionated heparin in a majority of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, except for the group at the highest risk for severe mechanical complications, in whom the 2 anticoagulant strategies showed similar results.