Gibson, C. M., Anshelevich, M., Murphy, S., Luu, L., Hynes, C., Kliris, J., Kermgard, S., Otten, M. H., Antman, E. M., Cannon, C. P., Braunwald, E. Impact of injections during diagnostic coronary arteriography on coronary patency in the setting of acute myocardial infarction from the TIMI trials. Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction Am J Cardiol. 2000;86(12):1378-9, A5.

The mechanical force of injection at 90 minutes opens 13.4% of occluded arteries, but overall, only 2.4% of all culprit arteries (already open and occluded combined) are opened. Thus, although some arteries are opened by the force of hand injection, the frequency of mechanical opening among all arteries is low, and hand injections appear to alter current 80% patency rates by approximately 2.5%.

Trial: TIMI 10B